|Scientific Name||Abies pindrow|
Slender, pyramidal conifer with horizontal upper branches. Bark has deep longitudinal grooves. Leaves are 4-7 cm long, shiny dark green above and with 2 faint silver lines beneath. Tips of leaves have 2 sharp tapering points. Cones are dark purple, erect, cylindrical, 10-20 cm long and 4-7.5 cm in diameter.
|Scientific Name||Abies spectabilis|
Pyramidal tree growing upto 50 m or taller. Bark is dark grey, deeply grooved. Leaves linear, up to 4 cm long, flat with incurved margin. Grooves of the young branchlets are hairy. Cones erect, cylindrical, 10-20 cm long, dark purple.
|Scientific Name||Acacia leucophloea|
This tree is 5 to 20 m high with a dense spheric crown, stems and branches usually dark to black coloured, fissured bark, grey-pinkish slash, exuding a reddish low quality gum.
|Hindi||रौंझ्, सफेद बबूल|
|Scientific Name||Acacia nilotica|
Thin, straight, light grey spines present in axillary pairs, usually 3-12 pairs, 5-7.5 cm long in young trees, and mature trees commonly without thorns.
|Scientific Name||Acer oblongum|
Small to medium-sized evergreen tree with lance-like, long pointed leaves. Young leaves are finely hairy, turning smooth and blue-green on the underside when older. Flowers are small, greenish white, borne in hairy clusters at the branch ends. Winged seeds in pairs is a typical character to identify a Himalayan Maple. Another important feature is retention of green leaves throughout winter.
|Scientific Name||Acer sterculiaceum|
Acer sterculiaceum is a species of maple tree in the sandalwood family.It is a tree up to 20 meters tall with dark gray or grayish-brown bark. Leaves are palmately lobed, usually with 3 or 5 lobes but occasionally 7. Leaves are up to 20 cm long, thick and a bit leathery, dark green and hairless on the top, lighter green and woolly on the underside.
|Scientific Name||Aegle marmelos|
This is a very useful tree for various reasons. The tree is sacred to Hindus and the leaves are used in Shiva temples. Various parts of the tree are used for their tonic and antibiotic properties to cure a large range of ailments. The sweet pulp of the fruit is drunk as a refreshing sherbet. The leaves are used as fodder and the wood was used to create agricultural implements.
|Scientific Name||Aesculus indica|
Native to the Himalayas, Indian Horse Chestnut is a tall, deciduous, spreading, shady tree, with a straight trunk, and branches in whorls. Its average height is 22 m; the girth of its trunk is about 1 m; its bark peels off upwards in narrow strips. The young shoots are minutely velvety, becoming hairless at maturity. The glossy leaves typically have seven leaflets arising from the same point on rather reddish stalks. The leaves are highly ornamental, and look like tiny umbrellas. The tree sheds its leaves during winter and the new growth starts in the last week of March. In April, the tree produces upright spikes of buds, and in May-June, the tree is decorated with upright panicles of white blooms. The panicles are about 40 cm long, containing over 300 flowers. These blooms are followed by the production of a spiny, green fruit which holds several brown seeds. Flowering: May-June.
|Scientific Name||Ailanthus excelsa|
Indian Tree of Heaven is a large deciduous tree, 18-25 m tall; trunk straight, 60-80 cm in diameter; bark light grey and smooth, becoming grey-brown and rough on large trees, aromatic, slightly bitter. Leaves alternate, pinnately compound, large, 30-60 cm or more in length; leaflets 8-14 or more pairs, long stalked, ovate or broadly lance shaped from very unequal base, 6-10 cm long, 3-5 cm wide, often curved, long pointed, hairy gland; edges coarsely toothed and often lobed. Flower clusters droop at leaf bases, shorter than leaves, much branched; flowers many, mostly male and female on different trees, short stalked, greenish-yellow. Five sepals, 5 narrow petals spreading 6 mm across. Fruit a 1-seeded samara, lance shaped, flat, pointed at ends, 5 cm long, 1 cm wide, copper red, strongly veined, twisted at the base The genus name Ailanthus comes from ailanthos (tree of heaven), the Indonesian name for Ailanthus moluccana. Flowering: January-March
|Tamil||பெருமரம் Perumaram; பீமரம் Peemaram|
|Scientific Name||Albizia amara|
Krishna Siris, Albizia amara is a mid-sized, deciduous tree. The bark of the tree is grey in color and is grainy and scaly.The leaves consist of up to 15 pairs of side stalks and the leaflets are tiny and can consist of about 15-35 pairs. The flowers are whitish-yellow powder puffs with long stamens and golden pollen.The pods are flat and are about 20 cm long. The leaves thin out during February-March and are renewed in April. The flowers are present throughout May and the fruits ripen during October and November.
|Tamil||அரப்பு Arappu ; உசிலை Usilai; ஊஞ்ச மரம் Oonjamaram|
|Scientific Name||Albizia lebbeck|
Albizia lebbeck is a deciduous, perennial legume tree, upto 25 meter in height, with grey fissured corky bark, somewhat flaky, inner bark reddish. It is multi-stemmed when grown in the open but capable of producing a single straight stem when grown in plantations. The gray, cork-like bark is fissured and somewhat flaky. Leaves are Alternate, twice compound, with 2-6 pairs of pinnae, each pinna with 4-12 pairs of leaflets, leaflets elliptic-oblong, 2-4 cm long. Usually asymmetrical at base, dull green above, paler green below. Flowering and seeding occurs in the wet season, and unless the trees have been frequently coppiced, they will produce large amounts of seed every year. Flowers mimosa-like, in showy, rounded clusters near stem tips, 5-6 cm across, cream or yellowish-white, the numerous stamens are about 2 cm long.
|Malayalam||Vaka, Nenmenivaka, വാക|
|Scientific Name||Albizia odoratissima|
a tall deciduous tree, has a greyish-brown, thick bark that is irregularly cracked. The leaves are compound, with even number of leaflets and appear feathery. Flowers are small and white, held in clusters resembling fluffy balls at the ends of branches. fruit is a flat pod which is brown when ripe.
|Malayalam||Karinthakara, Kunnivaka, Mellivaka, Nellivaga, Pulivaka|
|Scientific Name||Albizia procera|
White Siris, Albizia procera. Other known common names are Forest Siris, Brown Albizia. And Silver Bark Rain Tree. Albizia procera or White Siris is widely harvested from the wild for its timber and is used in fuel wood plantations or as an ornamental tree. It is fast-growing, has an open canopy, and grows up to 30 m tall. Its bole may be straight or crooked, and can reach up to 60 cm in diameter. Leaves are cooked and eaten as vegetables. White Siris is known for its use in traditional medicine. Further, all of its parts are believed to have an anti-cancer function.
|Hindi||सफ़ेद सिरिस,गुरार, चिचवी|
|Malayalam||konda vagei, velvagai|
|Tamil||வெள்வாகை Velvaagai ; கொண்டைவாகை Kondavaagai|
|Scientific Name||Albizia saman|
The Rain Tree is a native of Central America and the West Indies, but it is widely cultivated throughout the tropics. It was introduced into India from Jamaica.
|Hindi||गुलाबी सिरिस, विलायती सिरिस,|
|Tamil||சீமைவாகை Seemaivaagai, தூங்குமூஞ்சி மரம்Thoongumoonji maram|
|Scientific Name||Alstonia scholaris|
The name scholaris has come because in olden times the slates that chidren used were made from the soft wood of this tree. And the name Devil's tree in English and shaitan ka jhad in Hindi have probably come because this tree is shunned by animals because of its poisonous nature.
|Scientific Name||Annona squamosa|
Medium to small deciduous shrub, leaves are thin and alternate on branches. Flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-yellow in colour. Fruits are edible when ripe, have a greenish-grey-black ridges surface, with sweet chalky pulp and numerous seeds
|Tamil||சீதா பழம் Seetha Palam|
|Scientific Name||Anogeissus latifolia|
Axlewood tree, Anogeissus latifolia is a species of small to medium-sized tree native to the India. It is one of the most useful trees in India. Its leaves contain large amounts of gallotannins,and are used in India for tanning. The tree is the source of Indian gum, also known as ghatti gum, which is used for calico printing among other uses. The species name latifolia is in reference to its wider leaves. Trunk is straight and cylindrical or sometimes more poorly shaped, branchless for 8 m, up to 80 cm in diameter. Bark is smooth or with scales, pale to dark gray. Branches are drooping. Leaves are oppositey or nearly- oppositely arranged, simple, entire, with grayish-yellow or whitish hairs below.
|Kannada||bejjalu, dindala, dindhlu, dindiga|
|Malayalam||malakanniram, vellanava, mazhkanjiram|
|Telgu||shirimanu, sirimanu, vellama, yelama|
|Tamil||வெக்காளி Vekkali ; வெள்ளை நாகை Vellanaagai|
|Marathi||dhaora, dhamora, dhawda|
|Scientific Name||Anogeissus pendula|
A small deciduous tree with silvery bark that gets fissured with age. The leaves are simple. The flowers are greenish-white, very small and occur in clusters at the tips of branches. The fruits are also very small, single seeded (seed is winged) and dry when ripe
|Scientific Name||Artocarpus heterophyllus|
This is a large tree that has the largest fruit in the world. It is native to the Western Ghats but is now cultivated inmany others parts of the country
|Scientific Name||Avicennia marina|
Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove.Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or tree to a height of three to ten metres, or up to 14 metres in tropical regions.The leaves are thick, five to eight centimetres long, a bright, glossy green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or grey, with very small matted hairs on the surface below. The flowers range from white to a golden yellow color, are less than a cm across, and occur in clusters of 3-5. The fruit contains a large fleshy seed, often germinating on the tree and falling as a seedling.
|Tamil||கண்டல் Kandal; வென்கண்டல் Venkandal|
|Marathi||Tavir / Tivar|
|Scientific Name||Azadirachta indica|
Neem is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 15-20 m, rarely to 35-40 m. It is evergreen, but in severe drought it may shed most or nearly all of its leaves. The branches are wide spread. It blossoms in spring with the small white flowers. It has a straight trunk. Its bark is hard rough and scaly, fissured even in small trees. The color of the bark is brown grayish. The leaves are alternate and consist of several leaflets with serrated edges. Its flowers are small and white in color. The olive like edible fruit is oval, round and thin skinned. The Neem tree is noted for its drought resistance. Normally it thrives in areas with sub-arid to sub-humid conditions. Neem is a life-giving tree. It is one of the very few shade-giving trees that thrive in the drought-prone areas. The trees are not at all delicate about the water quality and thrive on the merest trickle of water, whatever the quality.
|Tamil||வேப்ப மரம், Vaepamaram|
|Scientific Name||Barringtonia racemosa|
Powderpuff mangrove, as the name suggests is a small- or medium-sized tree found in mangrove and littoral forests. The tree is evergreen with a brownish or pinkish bark, and branches are often marked with leaf scars. Leaves are obovate in shape, large and glossy and are clustered at branch tips. The flower is large and pinkish in colour, with many stamens arranged in a cluster that gives the flower the appearance of a powder puff. The fruit looks guava-like, but has four fleshy sections. This species is found along the west coast of India and in the Andaman islands
|Scientific Name||Bauhinia purpurea|
There are many types of Bauhinias and their leaves and flowers look similar. It is relatively easy to tell the Purple bauhinia apart because the petals in its flower do not overlap. The pods of this tree burst open with a loud sound and the seeds get scattered up to 6 m away. The outer covers of the pods become spiral shaped after the seeds are thrown out.
|Tamil||மந்தாரை Mantharai நீலத்திருவத்தி Neelathiruvathi|
|Scientific Name||Bauhinia racemosa|
Bauhinia racemosa, commonly known as the Bidi leaf tree is a rare medicinal species of flowering shrub with religious significance. It is a small crooked tree with drooping branches that grows 3-5 metres tall and flowers between February and May.The leaves are used for making bidis. Small flowers are borne in loose racemes, 5-10 cm long. Flowers are about 1 cm, greenish white. Petal are 5, narrow lancelike, stamens 10. Pods 13 to 25 cms by 1.8-2.5 cms in size, generally curved, swollen, rigid. Seeds 12 to 20, glabrous, dark reddish brown or black, compressed, 8mm long.
|Scientific Name||Bauhinia retusa|
Bauhinia Retusa is beautiful tree is native to Northern India and Nepal. The blooms measure about 1 feet across and are cream in color with dark purple accents. Flowers appear towards the end of summer and throughout fall. It can grow over 20 feet tall, and have roundish leaves shaped like camel hooves. It is semi-deciduous.
|Scientific Name||Bombax ceiba|
This tree has branches coming out in all directions and has many levels at which these branches come out like the ribs of many umbrellas one on top of the other. The large flowers are pollinated by birds, and after they fall on the forest floor, are eaten with relish by wild animals. The woody fruit bursts open to release hundreds of seeds attached to sliky fibres, that are wafted away in the wind.
|Malayalam||Mulilavu, Poola, മുള്ളിലവ്|
|Tamil||முள்ளிலவம் Mullilavam, மலை இலவம் Malai Ilavam|
|Scientific Name||Borassus flabellifer|
Toddy palm, Borassus flabellifer is a native - India and Malaysia. Its is as valuable as the coconut to many coastal people. All parts of the tree are used. The palm grows to a height of 20 meters. The trunk diameter can be as much as one meter.The leaf crown is 6 to seven meters tall and wide. Leaves are 2.5 to 3 meters in diameter on a 1.5 to 2 meter long stalk. Trunks are used as building material. The leaves are used for making baskets and mats. Also used for making food, beverage, pollen for bee-keepers. Flower are followed by large 6-8 inch diameter fruit are rounded brown. The fruit is delicious. The new growing embryos and seelings too are a delicacy.
|Tamil||பனை மரம் Panai maram|
|Scientific Name||Boswellia serrata|
up to 20 m high, the Indian frankinscence tree is deciduous in the dry season. It's bark is yellowish-white with dark blotches and has papery flakes. The leaves are compound with odd number of leaflets. Flowers are small and white with 5-7 petals. The fruit is a drupe with 3 hard-coated seeds
|Kannada||Madi, Chitta, Dhupada mara|
|Tamil||வெள்ளை குங்கிலியம் Vellai Kungiliyam, பறங்கிச்சாம்பிராணி Par|
|Scientific Name||Buchanania cochinchinensis|
A medium sized tree with a dark colored bark and long leaves that are extremely hairy when young and smooth and shiny when mature. Flowers are small and arranges in terminal branch clusters. Fruits are green when unripe and become purple when ripe. The fruit is edible.
|Scientific Name||Butea monosperma|
Native to India, Flame of the Forest is a medium sized tree, growing from 20 to 4O feet high, and the trunk is usually crooked and twisted with irregular branches and rough, grey bark. The leaves are pinnate, with an 8-16 cm petiole and three leaflets, each leaflet 10-20 cm long.
|Malayalam||Plasu, Chamatha, പ്ലാസ്|
|Scientific Name||Canarium strictum|
Canarium strictum - Black dammar is found in moist deciduous to semi-evergreen forests, in Western ghats, up to the altitude of 1400 meters, grows up to 40 meters tall. Leaves are bipinnate, oppositely arranged and sized 5 inches in length and 2-2.5 inch wide, young leaves are reddish brown it became green when old, the is scaly and thick when get wound a brownish secretion produces which is used to fuming to repel mosquitoes.
|Malayalam||Pantham, Pantappayan, Thelli, Viraka, Thellippayin|
|Scientific Name||Caryota urens|
Caryota urens is a species of flowering plant in the palm family from the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia where they grow in fields and rainforest clearings.Caryota urens species is a solitary-trunked tree that measure up to 12 m in height and up to 30 cm wide. Widely spaced leaf-scar rings cover its gray trunk which culminate in a 6 m wide, 6 m tall leaf crown. The bipinnate leaves are triangular in shape, bright to deep green, 3.5 m long, and held on 60 cm long petioles. The obdeltoid pinnae are 30 cm long with a pointed edge and a jagged edge.The 3 m long inflorescences emerge at each leaf node, from top to bottom, producing pendent clusters of white, unisexual flowers. The fruit matures to a round, 1 cm drupe, red in color with one seed. Like all Caryotas, the fruit contains oxalic acid, a skin and membrane irritant. As these plants are monocarpic, the completion of the flower and fruiting process results in the death of the tree.
|Tamil||கூந்தல்பனை Koonthalpanai; கொண்டல் பனை Kontalpanai; தாளிப்பனை|
|Scientific Name||Cascabela thevetia|
Phenology may vary depending on geographic location of the tree,sap is toxic to herbivores, this tree is not native to India
|Malayalam||Manja Areli മഞ്ഞ അറളി|
|Tamil||பொன்னரளி Ponnarali, திருவாச்சிப்பூ Thiruvachipoo|
|Scientific Name||Cassia fistula|
This is the State flower of Kerala.There are concerns that this flower which plays an important role in the Vishu celebrations (Malayali New Year), may not be available in April. It is called the Kani Poo in Tamil and Malayalam as it flowers only in April, and exactly during the Vishu festival, when this flower is considered to be a must in the decoration.
|Scientific Name||Cedrus deodara|
Large evergreen conifer, 40-50 m tall with distinct horizontal branches and drooping subbranches. Leaves are needle-like, 2.5-5 cm long, born in clusters of 20-30 on short shoots. Male cones are 4-6 cm long, female cones are barrel-shaped 7-13 cm long and 5-8 cm broad. Winged seeds are released when the female cones mature.
|Scientific Name||Ceiba pentandra|
Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree.The tree grows to 25 m high.Trunks can often be up to 3 m in diameter above the extensive buttresses.The trees produce several hundred 15 cm pods containing seeds surrounded by a fluffy, yellowish fibre that is a mix of lignin and cellulose.Leaves digitately compound, alternate, gathered towards the apex of branchlets.Flowers bisexual, creamy white, usually in clusters of 3-10, axillary or grouped towards the ends of leafless branchlets.
|Scientific Name||Ceiba speciosa|
Silk floss tree is an awkwardly branched 30-60 ft (9.1-18.3 m) tree with pale green leaves palmately divided into 5-7 pointed leaflets. The young trees start out growing fast, straight, and narrow, then slowly develop broadly spreading umbrella canopies as they age. The bulbous green trunk is covered with big blunt warty triangular spines and turns gray as the tree gets older. Silk floss trees typically drop their leaves just before they put on their spectacular autumn display of five-petaled flowers. The petals vary from pale pink to rose to purple or burgundy at the tips and grade into ivory with brownish spots or blotches at the base. The flowers are followed by pear shaped capsules filled with many seeds embedded in silky white floss.Silk floss tree, Chorisia speciosa native to Brazil and Argentina, but it is cultivated in many tropical areas.
|Scientific Name||Cerbera odollum|
A species native to India and parts of southern Asia. Grows in coastal salt swamps and marshy areas. It is also grown as a hedge tree. Leaves are terminally crowded, have entire margins, and tapering bases. Flowers are white and oleander-like. Fruits are green, fibrous, look like small mangoes, and toxic.
|Tamil||ஒத்தளங்காய் Othallangai ; காட்டு அரளி Kaatu Arali|
|Scientific Name||Champereia manillana|
An evergreen shrub or small tree with glossy leaves, small non-descript green-yellow flowers that are found on inflorescences that rise directly on the tree trunk, and orange-red fruits. This species is native to SE Asia and is found in the Andaman islands.
|Scientific Name||Chloroxylon swietenia|
An adaptable tree of dry mixed forests that grows on different soil types. Leaves about 20 cm long, with 20-40 pairs of leaflets that turn striking yellow before falling. Flowers in clusters, white, with 5 spoon-shaped petals and 10 stamens lending them a starry appearance. Fruits a capsule that turns woody brown when dehisces. Bark is flanked with corky tissue which s an adpatation to fires.
|Scientific Name||Citrus maxima|
|Scientific Name||Cochlospermum religiosum|
buttercups. The bark is smooth and pale grey, bark 20-25 mm thick, surface dark grey, fibrous; branchlets thick. It is sparsely clothed with leaves and sheds them at the height of the flowering season. Leaves glabrous above, densely brownish tomentose below, the arrangement is alternate distichous, Leaf Base is Chordate. The leaves appear at the tips of the branches leaves simple, palmately 3-5 lobed, alternate, estipulate; petiole 6-20 cm long.The flowers of the Buttercup tree are the most conspicuous part of the tree. Flowers bisexual, buttercup shaped and bright yellow.The fruits are brown and oval shaped. They come in the form of a capsule made up of five segments. The capsule splits open to release the seeds which are embedded in the silky cotton contained within. Fruits like a capsule.The flowering season is between February and April.
|Tamil||தணுக்கு Thanukku ; காட்டுபருத்தி Kaattuparutti,|
|Scientific Name||Cocos nucifera|
A large and magestic palm with prominent yellow-orange inflorescence and edible, hard-shelled fruits. The trunk has characteristic transverse ridges (which are old leaf bases)
|Scientific Name||Coffea arabica|
Coffea arabica is a species of Coffea originally indigenous to the forests of the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. It is also known as the "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee", or "arabica coffee". These plants grow between 9 and 12 m tall, and have an open branching system; the leaves are opposite, simple elliptic-ovate to oblong, 6 to 12 cm long and 4-8 cm broad, glossy dark green. The flowers are white, 10-15 mm in diameter and grow in axillary clusters. The seeds are contained in a drupe (commonly called a "cherry") 10-15 mm in diameter, maturing bright red to purple and typically contains two seeds (the coffee beans).
|Scientific Name||Coffea robusta|
Coffea canephora commonly known as robusta coffee, is a species of coffee that has its origins in central and western sub-Saharan Africa. The plant has a shallow root system and grows as a robust tree or shrub to about 10 metres. It flowers irregularly, taking about 10-11 months for cherries to ripen, producing oval-shaped beans.
|Scientific Name||Cordia dichotoma|
Small deciduous tree with a greyish brown, wrinkled bark. Flowers are borne on short stalks and fruits are yelow or pink whe unripe, turning back when ripe
|Hindi||गुन्दा Gunda, बहूआर Bahuar|
|Kannada||ಚಳ್ಳೆ ಹಣ್ಣು Challe Hannu|
|Malayalam||നറുവേലി Naruveeli, വിരശം Virasam, വിരി Viri|
|Telgu||శ్లేష్మాతకము Slesmatakamu, నెక్కర Nekkara, విరిగి Virigi|
|Tamil||விரிசு Viricu, நறுவல்லி Naru-valli|
|Marathi||गोंधण Gondhan, भोकर Bhokar, गोंदणी Gondani|
|Scientific Name||Cordia wallichii|
Deciduous trees, to 15 m high, bark brown to brownish-black, corky; branchlets densely pubescent. Leaves simple, alternate, estipulate; petiole 30-50 mm long. Flowers polygamous, creamy white.fruit a drupe, up to 15 mm, yellowish red, with sticky pulp.
|Malayalam||virimaram വിരിമരം, periyaviri|
|Tamil||பழந்தெக்கு Pazhan Thaekku;|
|Scientific Name||Coriaria nepalensis|
Coriaria nepalensis,Tanner's Tree is a shrub growing in the foot hills of Himalayas. It blooms in spring and has beautiful yellow flowers and red fruits in summer.It is a shrub, 1.5-2.5 metres tall. Flowers are in groups and they are male or female but in the same plant; their color is yellow. It blooms from February to May. Fruits are red to dark purple when mature. They look like berries but they are small nuts (achenes) protected by enlarged and colored petals. Fruits are produced from May to August but they cannot be eaten because their seeds are poisonous.
|Scientific Name||Couroupita guianensis|
The Cannonball tree is a large, stately tree with a dark brown bark and glossy simple leaves. The flowers occur on long branches all over the tree trunk, are very large, with 6 leathery petals and extremely fragrant. The arrangement of petals is reminiscent of a multi-headed serpent guarding a shiva-linga, giving the tree the same common name in different Indian languages. The other common name of cannon-ball is due to the extremely large and woody, spherical fruits which take a long time to mature and are thus seen persistent on tree trunks.
|Scientific Name||Crataeva religiosa|
A tree that can grow up to 15 m high, has glossy leaves and a white-spotted bark. Leaves are compound with three leaflets. Large showey flowers have 4 petals (two small and two large) and a profusion of anthers. The fruits are fleshy with a yellow pulp that smells like garlic.
|Malayalam||Neermathalam, Neerval, Mavulangam|
|Scientific Name||Crateva adansonii|
Species description: A moderate sized tree that grows near water. Bark is grey and smooth. Leaves trifoliate, and clustered on branch tips. Flowers are whitish or pale-yellow, appear in clusters, and contain several, long stamens that project beyond the petals. Fruit is ovoid or round with a hard rind and contains several kidney-shaped seeds embedded in a yellow pulp.
|Scientific Name||Cupressus torulosa|
Upto 45 m tall, the terminal branchlets of the tree are drooping or irregularly spreading and slender. Leaves are closely arranged, scale-like, 1-1.8 mm long, flat with slightly blunt tips. Seed cones are dark grayish brown, ovoid or nearly spherical. Seeds are ovate-oblong, flattened, 3-5 mm in size.
|Hindi||Raj sallo, dhupee|
|Scientific Name||Dalbergia lanceolaria|
Dalbergia lanceolaria is a species of legume in the Fabaceae family native to India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Burma. It is a medium-sized tree. The bark of the tree is traditionally used as an analgesic and anti-diarrhoeal.
|Tamil||வெளங்கு Velangu ; ஏரிகை Erigai|
|Scientific Name||Dalbergia sissoo|
Dalbergia sissoo, known commonly as Indian Rosewood, is a slow-growing, hardy deciduous rosewood tree native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southern Iran. D. Sissoo is a large, crooked tree with long, leathery leaves and whitish or pink flowers. It can grow up to a maximum of 25 m in height and 2 to 3 m (6 ft 7 in to 9 ft 10 in) in diameter, but is usually smaller. Trunks are often crooked when grown in the open. Leaves are leathery, alternate, pinnately compound and about 15 cm (5.9 in) long. Flowers are whitish to pink, fragrant, nearly sessile, up to 1.5 cm (0.59 in) long and in dense clusters 5-10 cm (2.0-3.9 in) in length. Pods are oblong, flat, thin, strap-like 4-8 cm (1.6-3.1 in) long, 1 cm (0.39 in) wide and light brown.
|Scientific Name||Delonix regia|
This common tree of roadsides and avenues, with its beautiful flowers, is grown all over India, but is a native of the forests of Madagascar.
|Tamil||மயில்கொன்றை Mayil konrai, நெருப்பு கொன்னை Neruppukonnai|
|Scientific Name||Dichrostachys cinerea|
This is a small tree found in arid parts of India and has thorny branches. Leaves are bipinnately compound. The drooping inflorecence is bicoloured, flowers with pink stamens appear at the base while flowers with yellow stamens appear towards the tip (the scientific name of this tree is derived from this characteristic). The fruits are edible, coiled pods.
|Tamil||விடத்தலை Vidathalai, விடத்தேர் Vidathaer Maram|
|Scientific Name||Dillenia indica|
Dillenia indica, commonly known as elephant apple is a species of Dillenia.It is an evergreen large shrub or small to medium-sized tree growing to 15 m tall. The leaves are 15 to 36 cm long, with a conspicuously corrugated surface with impressed veins. Its branches are used to make good firewood. The flowers are large, 15 to 20 cm diameter, with five white petals and numerous yellow stamens. Its characteristic round fruits are large, greenish yellow, have many seeds and are edible. The fruit is a 5 to 12 cm diameter aggregate of 15 carpels, each carpel containing five seeds embedded in an edible but fibrous pulp.
|Tamil||உவா மரம் Uva maram|
|Scientific Name||Dillenia pentagyna|
Dillenia is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in the family Dilleniaceae.The leaves are simple and spirally arranged. The flowers are solitary, or in terminal racemes, with five sepals and five petals, numerous stamens, and a cluster of five to 20 carpels; they are superficially similar in appearance to Magnolia flowers.
|Scientific Name||Dipterocarpus retusus|
A lofty, evergreen tree 30-50 m tall, growing on hillsides and along rivers in the eastern Himalayan forests. Bark gray or brown, shallowly flaky. Bole straight, base of the trunk buttressed. Leaves simple, alternate, elliptic to obovate-elliptic. Flowers large, bisexual, sweetly scented. Fruit winged and nut-like at the base.
|Scientific Name||Duabanga grandiflora|
Duabanga is a tall deciduous fast growing tree Large tree, scarcely buttressed, able to grow up to about 18 to 30 m tall, sometimes reaching 40 m in its natural habitat. Branches tend to spread out horizontally in all directions and drooping from the trunk. Large green oblong leaves, opposite arrangement, measuring about 12 to15 cm long and 5 to 7 cm wide, petiole about 1.2 cm long, young leaves are reddish pink.Flowers are white 6 petaled flowers borne on a drooping corymb inflorescence from the ends of branches, each flower about 5 - 6 cm wide, unpleasant smell, numerous stamens.Fruit is a subglobose capsule about 2 - 4 cm long and 4 cm wide, turns from green to brownish-orange when ripen, contains many small seeds.
|Scientific Name||Erythrina indica|
A beautiful ornamental tree that is planted in gardens and parks, the flowers of this tree are bright red and striking. A variety of birds are visitors to the coral tree when it is in flower.The flowers appear when the tree is completely bare of leaves.
|Tamil||முள்ளு முருங்கை Mullu Murungai|
|Scientific Name||Falconeria insignis|
Small tree 5-10 m tall, deciduous, with horizontal branches exuding poisonous milky latex. Leaves are long, and glossy, with a toothed margin, arranged in clusters at branch ends. Flowers appear when the tree is completely leafless. Unisexual flowers appear in upright spikes at branch tips. Fruits appear in vertical clusters, black when ripe.
|Kannada||ಕುರುಡು ಮರ Kurudu mara|
|Scientific Name||Ficus benghalensis|
Ficus benghalensis, commonly known as the banyan, banyan fig and Indian banyan is a tree native to the Indian Subcontinent.Banyan trees are one of the largest trees in the world and grow up to 20-25 m with branches spreading up to 100 m. it has a massive trunk that has smooth greyish brown bark and is fluted. They have very powerful roots that can penetrate very hard surfaces like concrete and even stones sometimes. Older banyan trees are characterized by emergence of aerial prop roots that are thin and fibrous when new, but develop into thick branchlike appearance once they are old and firmly rooted onto the soil. These aerial prop roots offer support to the huge canopy of the tree. The banyan tree generally grows around an existing tree for initial support and drives it roots within it. As the banyan tree matures, the mesh of roots exerts tremendous pressure on the support tree, it eventually dies and the remains rot away leaving a hollow central column inside the main tree trunk.
|Scientific Name||Ficus mollis|
The soft fig is a deciduous tree that can grow up to 15m in height. It has a grey-white, smooth bark. The leaves are simple and have a grey hairy underside. Like all figs, the flowers of this tree are also not visible, as they are hidden inside fleshy 'syconia' present in pairs at the base of leaves. Ripe syconia are hairy and grey in colour.
|Scientific Name||Ficus palmata|
Punjab Fig is a deciduous, medium-sized tree with large heart-shaped leaves. Young branches are velvety, becoming hairless as they grow older. Bark is smooth, ash gray. Leaves are alternately arranged with toothed margin, rough upper surface and lighter green, hairy lower surface. It bears one of the tastiest figs in the wild.
|Scientific Name||Ficus racemosa|
This is a large fig tree, whose fruits are eaten by many birds and mammals. The bark is often pock-marked with dark craters. The flowers are inside the fruits, as in all figs, and so cannot be seen from the outside.
|Tamil||அத்தி Atthi, வெள்ளை அத்தி Vellaiatthi|
|Scientific Name||Ficus religiosa|
This is a well-known tree across India. It is said that Gautama Buddha became enlightened meditating under one of these trees in Bodh Gaya in Bihar. It is a fig tree, and like all figs, you cannot see the flowers because they are inside the fruits.
|Scientific Name||Garuga pinnata|
Garuga pinnata is a deciduous tree species from the family Burseraceae.Leaves are pinnate, 6-18 in. long, with 6-10 pairs of leaflets and a lone one at the tip. Leaflets are opposite or nearly so, 3-6 in. long, lance-shaped, with a tapering tip, toothed margin, softly hairy when young, ultimately smooth. Flowers are small, creamy white or yellow, in much branched, velvety pinnacles in leaf axils or at the ends of the branches.
|Kannada||aranelli, biligadde, kaashthanelli|
|Telgu||garuga, konda vepa|
|Tamil||கருவேம்பு Karuvembu, ஆறுநெல்லி Arunelli|
|Scientific Name||Gliricidia sepium|
Gliricidia sepium grows to a height of 2-15 m, has a medium crown and may be single or multistemmed. The bark colour is variable but is mainly greyish-brown, and it can be much fissured. The tree has deep roots when mature. Leaves are alternate and pinnate with (min. 7) 13-21 (max. 25) leaflets, papery, oblong with a distinctive pointed tip. Leaflet size increases towards the distal end of the leaf. At maturity, the upper surface ranges from smooth and hairless to bristly and usually has no tanniniferous patches. The lower surface can also be smooth and hairless or bristly but commonly has purplish tanniniferous patches concentrated toward the centre of the lamina. Flowers arranged on conspicuously short, upward-curving to erect inflorescences, which are usually pink, fading to whitish-brown or pale purple with age. Pods explosively dehiscent, strongly laterally compressed and pale green or reddish-pink when unripe, turning pale yellow-brown when fully ripe.
|Tamil||விவசாயத் தகரை Vivasaya thagarai, சீமை அகத்தி Seemai agathi|
|Scientific Name||Gmelina arborea|
This tree is best known for its wood which is sometimes called white teak.
|Malayalam||Kumbil കുമ്പില്, Kumizhu കുമിഴ്|
|Scientific Name||Goniothalamus macranthus|
A small tree commonly found in evergreen forests of Andaman and Nicoar islands and West Bengal. It has a greyish brown bark and leaves are leathery and oblong. The flowers are fleshy and green in colour and droop from branches. The fruit is long and cylindrical with grooves between seeds.
|Scientific Name||Grewia optiva|
Deciduous tree growing 9-12 m tall with a spreading crown. Branches are silvery-brown, peeling with small woody scales. Leaves oppositely arranged, oval, margin toothed, tip long and pointed, rough and hairy above, velvety on the underside. Leaf base is rounded, slightly asymmetrical. Flowers pale yellow or red inside, petals shorter than sepals. Fruit is dry, 4 lobed, olive green, turning black when ripe.
|Scientific Name||Holoptelea integrifolia|
This is a very large tree, found across India. The wood is soft and light.
|Tamil||ஆயா மரம் Aaya Maram, தம்பச்சி Tambachi|
|Scientific Name||Jacaranda mimosifolia|
Jacaranda tree is a nice and striking tree that can grow up to 18 metres at the highest. The tree contains large leaves that are separated into tiny sections and as a whole, it has the shape of a nicely cut branch. The tree normally flowers for a very short period starting from the month of March to May. But some exceptional trees do flower even out of the season. From beginning to end, every tree is wrapped in blue.
|Scientific Name||Juglans regia|
A Himalayan tree that in forests becomes 25-30 m tall with a clear long trunk and is indigenous at elevations between 1400-3500 m.
|Scientific Name||Kigelia africana|
Sausage Tree, Kigelia africana is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae.It''s common name is sausage tree.It is a tree growing up to 20 m (66 feet) tall. The bark is grey and smooth at first, peeling on older trees. It can be as thick as 6 mm on a 15-cm branch .The leaves are opposite or in whorls of three, 12 to 20 inches long, pinnate, with six to ten oval leaflets up to eight inches (20 cm) long and 2.25 inches (6 cm) broad. Flowers are produced in panicles they are bell-shaped orange to maroon or purplish green, and about four inches (10 cm )wide.The fruit is a woody berry from 12 to 39 inches long and up to seven inches broad.
|Kannada||Sasega, Aanethoradu Kaayi|
|Malayalam||Shiva kundalam ശിവ കൂന്ദളം|
|Tamil||Mara sorakkai மரச் சுரைக்காய், Yaanai pudukan யானை புடுகண்|
|Scientific Name||Kydia calycina|
Kydia is a tree, growing up to 20 m tall. Leaves 3-12.5 cm long, 4-16.5 cm broad, commonly 7 nerved, truncate-subcordate at base, entire or 3-5 angled, not or slightly denticulate, acute-obtuse, dark green and less hairy above, greyish below.
|Telgu||bolka, pacha botuku, Potari|
|Tamil||வெண்டைமரம் Vendai maram, பூலா Pula|
|Scientific Name||Lagerstroemia hypoleuca|
Species description: A large tree with thin whitish bark. Leaves are simple, thinly leathery, pale underneath. Flowers are purple and showy, and borne in long cylindrical panicles on branch tips. Fruit is woody, ovoid, dark brown when ripe, and splits to release small, flat seeds.
|Scientific Name||Lagerstroemia speciosa|
This is a very beautiful flowering tree with pink rose-like wrinkled flowers in large clusters. Maharashtra has honoured this tree by making its flower the state flower.
|Tamil||கதலி Kadali, பூமருது Poo Maruthu|
|Scientific Name||Lannea coromandelica|
up to 25m high, the Indian ash tree is deciduous in the dry season. It has a rough grey-brown bark, leaves are compound with odd number of leaflets. It exudes a red coloured resin when damaged. Flowers are unisexual, male and female flowers look similar except for the reproductive parts. The fruit is fleshy and eaten by frugivorous birds
|Kannada||Godda mara, Udi mara, Ajjashringi|
|Malayalam||Anakkaram, Karasu, Karayam, Karilavu, Konapadanara, Odiyamar|
|Tamil||ஒதி Oti, உதிய மரம் Uthiyamaram|
|Scientific Name||Lantana camara|
The flower has a tutti frutti smell with a pepper undertone.
|Tamil||உண்ணி செடி Unnichedi|
|Scientific Name||Lawsonia inermis|
Small tree or large shrub, with spine-tipped branches and smooth leaves. Flowers are white and fragrant with have red or white-tipped stamens held in pairs at the rim of the calyx tube
|Scientific Name||Lepisanthes rubiginosa|
A small tree or shrub, found in the Andaman Islands and Indo-China region. The leaf is compound, having 3-6 pairs of leaflets which have brown hairs on the upper and underside. Small yellow-white, fragrant flowers are borne on long branched inflorescences. Fruits are fleshy and turn dark purple or black when ripe.
|Scientific Name||Litchi chinensis|
Large, evergreen tree growing up to 10-30 m tall. Leaves are compound, with 4-8 alternately arranged, lance-shaped, pointed leaflets. Leaflets are smooth, leathery, glossy, dark green above and grayish-green on the underside. Flowers are small, white or yellowish, borne in clusters. Fruits are born in clusters at the end of branches. Lychee fruit is round, pinkish red, with leathery, warty skin and juicy pulp.
|Scientific Name||Macaranga peltata|
An easy way to identify the Chandada is to notice that the leaf stalks are attached on the underside of the leaf and not to the base of the leaf as in most other trees.
|Kannada||Vattathamarai, Chanda kala|
|Malayalam||Vatta / Uppila|
|Scientific Name||Madhuca longifolia (var. latifolia)|
In many parts of India this is considered to be a very valuable tree because it gives nutritious food for millions of poor people. The flowers are eaten raw and in a season a large tree can give 300 kg of flowers. The seeds give mahua butter that is used in cooking.
|Scientific Name||Magnolia campbellii|
A large Himalayan tree with spectacular flowers that is found eastwards of Nepal and grows in elevations between 2000-3000 m.
|Scientific Name||Malus domestica|
Small tree with a spreading canopy. Leaves are dark green, elliptical with serrate margin and velvety hair on the underside. Flowers are 5-petaled, white above and pink below, appearing in groups of 4-6. Fruit is green when unripe, ripening to a pink-red coloration.
|Scientific Name||Mangifera indica|
Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango. Mango is the National fruit of India.Mango tree can grow upto almost 120-130 ft in height, with a radius of 33 ft at the top. The root of the mango tree goes down to around 20 ft, in deep soil. The evergreen leaves of the mango tree contain a specific aroma and are almost 15-35 cm in length and 6-16 cm in width.Flowering takes place generally in between January to March. The flowers have 4 or 5 petals and are 5-10 mm in length. The mango flowers are yellow-greenish in colour. The petals have orange stripes on them. The stems of the tree are fat, green in colour and wavy. They can bear numerous retreating side stems. Each of these stems has a lot of little and stalked flowers. The Mango fruit takes 2 to 3 months to get matured and they vary from one tree to another. The normal fruiting period of the Mango tree is from the month of May to July, but one can obtain fruit from them almost every month of the year.
|Scientific Name||Manilkara zapota|
A small, evergreen tree with milky latex in younger branches and in fruit stalks. Flowers are pale yellow, clustered at the apices of branches. Fruits are brown and fleshy with a chalky texture when ripe and are edible
|Scientific Name||Melaleuca viminalis|
Belongs to the same family as Eucalyptus and Jamun. Phenology may vary depending on geographic location of the tree
|Scientific Name||Melia azedarach|
Melia azedarach, commonly known by many names, including chinaberry tree. The adult tree has a rounded crown, and commonly measures 7 to 12 metres tall. The leaves are up to 50 centimetres (20 in) long, alternate, long-petioled, two or three times compound (odd-pinnate) the leaflets are dark green above and lighter green below, with serrate margins. The flowers are small and fragrant, with five pale purple or lilac petals, growing in clusters. The fruit is a drupe, marble-sized, light yellow at maturity, hanging on the tree all winter, and gradually becoming wrinkled and almost white.
|Tamil||மலை வேப்ப மரம் Malaiveppu|
|Scientific Name||Mesua ferrea|
Mesua ferrea also known as Nagkesar is a beautiful evergreen tree and has been used in Ayurveda for thousands of years. This is cultivated as an ornamental plant. The tree grows up to 30m in height and the pendulous leaves are 8 to 15 cm long. They are simple, narrow, opposite, black grey to dark green in colour. The branches are glabrous and slender. The flowers are bisexual, white petals with orange stamens. The capsule contains 1 to 2 seeds. It flowers from March to July. The fruits are seen during October to November.
|Scientific Name||Michelia champaca|
Magnolia champaca, known in English as champak. It known for its fragrant flowers, and its timber used in woodworking.In its native range Magnolia champaca grows to 50 metres or taller. Its trunk can be up to 1.9 metres in diameter. The tree has a narrow umbelliform crown. It has strongly fragrant flowers in varying shades of cream to yellow-orange, during June to September.
|Hindi||चम्पा, सोन चम्पा|
|Scientific Name||Millingtonia hortensis|
Millingtonia hortensis Linn. is cultivated in most parts of India, both in gardens and avenues. Tall and straight, with comparatively few branches, its popularity lies in its ornamental value. It is a fine tree, fast growing, but with brittle wood, liable to be damaged by storms. The ashy bark is cracked and furrowed and the numerous fissures make removal of the cork an easy matter. It is used as an inferior substitute for true cork. From April until the rains and again in November and December, a profusion of silvery-white, delightfully fragrant flowers crown the foliage. Upright open clusters with arching blooms terminate every branchlet. Each flower is a tiny bell-shaped calyx, a long slender tube of palest green dividing into four waxy, white petals and several conspicuous yellow anthered stamens. Many flowers are delicately tinted with rose. Between January and March the leaves are shed and renewed during April and May.
|Tamil||மரமல்லிகை Maramalligai, பன்னீர்மரம் Panneer maram|
|Scientific Name||Mimusops elengi|
The scientific name of this tree comes from its Malayalam name. The wood is extremely hard, the fruits are edible and oil is extracted from the seeds
|Scientific Name||Mitragyna parviflora|
Mitragyna parvifolia is a tree species is native to India and SriLanka. Mitragyna species are used medicinally as well as for their fine timber throughout the areas they grow. It reaches heights of 50 feet with a branch spread of over 15 feet. The stem is erect and branching. Flowers are yellow and grow in ball-shaped clusters. Leaves are a dark green in color, smooth, rounded in shape, and opposite in growth pattern
|Malayalam||Nir kadambu, Vimbu|
|Tamil||நீர்க்கடம்பை Neer Kadambai|
|Scientific Name||Monoon longifolium|
The mast tree is easily recognisable from its conical canopy and is often planted widely along avenues, gardens and residential areas. The leaves are long, with a pointed tip and a wavy margin. The flowers are greenish-white, small and distinctly star-shaped. The fruits are green when unripe and turn black or purple when ripe.
|Malayalam||Aranamaram അരണമരം , Chorunna|
|Scientific Name||Morinda citrifolia|
This is a small tree with smooth, glossy obovate leaves, with characteristic stipules between leaf petioles. Flowers are white, fragrant and sessile. The fruits are very characteristic, fleshy and green when unripe and yellow when ripe.
|Tamil||வெண் நுணா Venn Nuna|
|Scientific Name||Morinda pubescens|
Evergreen small tree growing 5-10 m tall. Stem is crooked with rough, pale brown bark. Leaves opposite, oblong, lancelike, hairy. White flowers occur in round clusters. Each flower has 5 slender, pointy petals. Fruit round, green, looks like soccer ball.
|Kannada||ಮಡ್ಡಿ ಮರ Maddi Mara|
|Scientific Name||Moringa oleifera|
Phenology may vary depending on geographic location of the tree
|Scientific Name||Morus alba|
Morus alba, known as white mulberry, is a fast-growing, small to medium-sized mulberry tree which grows to 10 to 20 m tall. the leaves may be up to 30 cm long, and deeply and intricately lobed, with the lobes rounded.The trees are generally deciduous in temperate regions, but trees grown in tropical regions can be evergreen. The flowers are single-sex catkins; male catkins are 2 to 3.5 cm long, and female catkins 1-2 cm long. Male and female flowers are usually on separate trees although they may occur on the same tree. The fruit is 1-2.5 cm long; in the species in the wild it is deep purple, but in many cultivated plants it varies from white to pink; it is sweet but bland, unlike the more intense flavor of the red mulberry and black mulberry. The seeds are widely dispersed in the droppings of birds that eat the fruit.
|Tamil||கம்பளிச் செடி Kambalicheddi, மல்பரி Mulberry|
|Scientific Name||Muntingia calabura|
Calabura is a rapidly growing, small, evergreen shrub or a tree with a short, broad, spreading crown; it can grow from 3 to 12 metres tall.The leaves are alternate, distichous, oblong or lanceolate, 4 to 15 cm long and 1 to 6 cm wide, with toothed margin and covered in short hairs.The flowers are small (up to 3cm wide), solitary or in inflorescences of 2 to 3 flowers; with 5 lanceolate sepals, hairy; 5 obovate white petals; many stamens with yellow anthers and a smooth ovoid ovary. Fruit, an edible berry, red at maturity, about 1.5 cm wide.
|Kannada||Gasagase hannina mara|
|Scientific Name||Murraya koenigii|
Small tree with fragrant leaves that are used in south Indian cuisine, flowers are small,white and fragrant, fruits are oval and dark purple or black in colour
|Scientific Name||Myrica esculenta|
Kaphal is an evergreen tree found throughout the mid-Himalayas, starting from about 1,300 metres and going up to about 2,100 metres.
|Scientific Name||Neolamarckia cadamba|
The flowers of this tree are delicately scented, and are used in decoration and prayer. The fruits are eaten by birds, monkeys and bats.
|Scientific Name||Nerium oleander|
sap is toxic to herbivores, this tree is probably not native to India
|Scientific Name||Nyctanthes arbor-tristis|
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis is a shrub or a small tree growing to 10 m (33 ft) tall, with flaky grey bark. The leaves are opposite, simple, 6-12 cm long and 2 to 6.5 cm broad, with an entire margin. The flowers are fragrant, with a five- to eight-lobed white corolla with an orange-red centre; they are produced in clusters of two to seven together, with individual flowers opening at dusk and finishing at dawn. The fruit is a flat brown heart-shaped to round capsule 2 cm diameter, with two sections each containing a single seed.
|Hindi||हार सिंगार, पारिजात|
|Tamil||பவழ மல்லி Pavazhamalli|
|Scientific Name||Oroxylum indicum|
Deciduous medium-sized tree (8-12 m tall). The bark is greyish brown. Compound leaves are 0.5 to 1.5 m long. Flowers are red-purple outside and pinkish-yellow within. Fruits are flat pods 0.33-1 m long, sword-shaped with flat, winged seeds stacked inside.
|Scientific Name||Parkia biglandulosa|
African locust tree is a tall handsome tree, native of W. Africa.Leaves are bipinnate, leaflets 60-100 pairs, small. two glands present at the base of the petiole.Flowers are big globose or obovoid, green heads, peduncles long. Fruit are Pods large and strap-shaped. Flowering and Fruiting time : January to March
|Hindi||चेन्डुल का झाड़|
|Scientific Name||Peltophorum pterocarpum|
Peltophorum pterocarpum is commonly known as copperpod, yellow-flamboyant, yellow flametree, yellow poinciana or yellow-flame.It is a deciduous tree growing to 15 to 25 m (rarely up to 50 m) tall, with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m belonging to Family Leguminosae and sub-family Caesalpiniaceaea. The leaves are bipinnate, 30 to 60 cm long, with 16 to 20 pinnae, each pinna with 20 to 40 oval leaflets 8 to 25 mm long and 4 to 10 mm broad. The flowers are yellow, 2.5 to 4 cm diameter, produced in large compound racemes up to 20 cm long. The fruit is a pod 5 to 10 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, red at first, ripening black, and containing one to four seeds. Trees begin to flower after about four years.
|Tamil||பெருங்கொன்றை Perunkonnrai, இயல்வாகை Iyalvaagai|
|Scientific Name||Phoenix sylvestris|
Phoenix sylvestris (sylvestris - Latin, of the forest) also known as silver date palm, Indian date, sugar date palm or wild date palm.Phoenix sylvestris ranges from 4 to 15 m in height and 40 cm in diameter; not as large as the Canary Island Date Palm, but nearly so, and resembling it. The leaves are 3 m long, gently recurved, on 1 m petioles with acanthophylls near the base. The leaf crown grows to 10 m wide and 7.5 to 10 m tall containing up to 100 leaves. The inflorescence grows to 1 metre with white, unisexual flowers forming to a large, pendent infructescence. The single-seeded fruit ripens to a purple-red colour.
|Tamil||ஈச்ச மரம் Eechamaram, இனித்தபனை Inithapanai|
|Scientific Name||Phyllanthus emblica|
This tree grows wild in forests. The fruit has large quantities of vitamin C, and is famously sour in taste.
|Kannada||Nelli / Amalaka|
|Scientific Name||Picea smithiana|
Large evergreen tree growing 40-55 m tall with a conical crown and pendulous branches. Leaves are needle-like, 3-5 cm long. Cones are 9-16 cm long and 3 cm broad. Mature cones are buff-brown, with stiff, smooth-rounded scales.
|Scientific Name||Pinus roxburghii|
Chir pines grow straight with round canopy and branched trunk. Leaves are needles in bunches of 3, slender, 25-30 cm long and yellow-green in colour. Male and female cones are separate but can be found on the same tree. Cones are ovoid, 12-24 cm long and 5-8 cm broad. The cones are green when unripe, turning glossy chestnut-brown when ripe.
|Scientific Name||Pinus wallichiana|
Blue pine gets the name from its blue-green needle leaves. The tree can grow up to 50 m tall, is symmetric and pyramidal in shape. Bark is slaty grey, becoming rough with shallow fissures in older trees. Leaves are 15-20 cm long. Cones are 15-25 cm long in clusters of 2-3.
|Scientific Name||Pithecellobium dulce|
Pithecellobium dulce is a tree that reaches a height of about 10 to 15 m (33 to 49 ft). Its trunk is spiny and its leaves are bipinnate. Each pinna has a single pair of ovate-oblong leaflets that are about 2 to 4 cm (0.79 to 1.57 in) long. The flowers are greenish-white, fragrant, sessile and reach about 12 cm (4.7 in) in length, though appear shorter due to coiling. The flowers produce a pod, which turns pink when ripe and opens to expose an edible pulp. The pulp contains black shiny seeds that are circular and flat. The seed is dispersed via birds that feed on the sweet pulp. The tree is drought resistant and can survive in dry lands from sea level to an elevation of 1,500 m (4,900 ft), making it suitable for cultivation as a street tree.
|Malayalam||Manila puli മനില പുളി|
|Scientific Name||Plumeria rubra|
sap is toxic to herbivores, this tree is not native to India
|Scientific Name||Pongamia pinnata|
The seeds, root, bark, leaves and flowers all have various uses in traditional medicine so this is a valuable tree. A reddish oil extracted from the seeds called karanj oil is used to light lamps or as a lubricant for engines.
|Scientific Name||Populus ciliata|
A fast-growing deciduous tree with a tall straight bole and large, spreading crown.Bark is dark brown and fissured in old trees. Leaves heart-shaped with toothed margins, and downy, at least along veins. Male and female flowers are produced on separate trees, in drooping catkins, just before or along with leaves. Male flowers are bell-shaped and female flowers are bluntly toothed. Fruit is a capsule, enclosing 100-150 seeds covered in silky hair.
|Scientific Name||Prosopis cineraria|
This is a small tree of the arid regions with thorny branches. The leaves are compound, with 8-12 pairs of leaflets. The flowers are small and yellow, held in 6-10 cm long clusters at the end of branches (resembling a bottle-brush). The fruit is a smooth, edible pod
|Scientific Name||Prosopis juliflora|
Prosopis juliflora is a shrub or small tree.The mesquite tree grows to a height of up to 12 metres (39 ft) and has a trunk with a diameter of up to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft). Its leaves are deciduous, bi-pinnate, light green, compounded with 12 to 20 leaflets. Flowers appear shortly after leaf development. The flowers are in 5 to 10 cm long green-yellow cylindrical spikes, which occur in clusters of 2 to 5 at the ends of branches. Pods are 20 to 30 cm long and contain between 10 and 30 seeds per pod. A mature plant can produce hundreds of thousands of seeds. Seeds remain viable for up to 10 years. The tree reproduces by way of seeds, not vegetatively. Seeds are spread by cattle and other animals that consume the seed pods and spread the seeds in their droppings.
|Scientific Name||Prunus armeniaca|
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
|Malayalam||Mutta Pazham / Sheema Pazham|
|Scientific Name||Prunus cerasoides|
A Himalayan tree found at elevations between 750-2400 m. Beautiful to look at when in full bloom and the fruit is good to eat when ripe.
|Scientific Name||Prunus domestica|
Medium-sized tree growing upto 12 m tall.Flowers are white, and borne in clusters around April.Fruit is spherical or oval, varies among cultivars, but it is generally soft and juicy with a flavour ranging from very sweet to sour. It contains a single stony seed
|Scientific Name||Prunus nepalensis|
Medium sized tree with greyish or dark brown bark and elongated, leaves with very minute serrations on the margins. Flowers are small and have non descript white petals. The fruits are purple-black and fleshy when ripe and are used in a number of culinary preparations in and around the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya.
|Scientific Name||Prunus persica|
Small tree upto 10 m tall.Flowers are pink, solitary or paired, and have five petals. They are borne in early spring before fresh leaves emerge.Fruits are drupes, have yellowish flesh, and a velvety skin. Each contains a single large red-brown seed that is surrounded by a woody husk.
|Scientific Name||Psidium guajava|
Small evergreen tree.Flowers are white, borne singly or in small clusters in leaf axils, and have 4-5 petals. They also have a prominent tuft of white stames supporting pale anthers.Bark is smooth, thin, copper-colored and flakes off, showing the greenish layer beneath.Fruit is round, ovoid, or pear-shaped, has light green skin, and studded with several tiny seeds in the flesh
|Scientific Name||Pterocarpus marsupium|
A tree of hilly country, it is found in deciduous forests. One of the largest trees with splayed branches, make it easier to spot even in silhouette. Leaves have 5 to 7 smooth leaflets with wavy margins. Flowers appear after rains, 5-petalled, pea-shaped and have a crinky texture. Fruit disk-shaped, papery with a single seed at the centre.
|Scientific Name||Pterospermum acerifolium|
Pterospermum acerifolium is commonly referred to as Kanak Champa, Muchakunda or Karnikar Tree within its native range.It is a relatively a large tree, growing up to thirty meters tall. The large flowers are unique in shape and have an exotic fragrance. the grounded flower petals cure chronic headache. The outer sepal is of jack color and the inner cepal is of yellow color. The flower is funnel shaped and white. The whole flower gives the look of a designer garment. Huge leaves used as plates in India, where it is grown for shade and for valuable timber similar to oak and teak.
|Hindi||कनक चम्पा, मचकुंद|
|Scientific Name||Punica granatum|
The pomegranate, botanical name Punica granatum, is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree.A shrub or small tree growing 6 to 10 m high. P. granatum leaves are opposite or subopposite, glossy, narrow oblong, entire, 3 to 7 cm long and 2 cm broad. The flowers are bright red and 3 cm in diameter, with three to seven petals. Some fruitless varieties are grown for the flowers alone.The edible fruit is a berry, intermediate in size between a lemon and a grapefruit, 5 to 12 cm in diameter with a rounded shape and thick, reddish skin.
|Scientific Name||Pyrus pashia|
Himalayan Pear is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree. Leaves are broadly oval, shiny, with a toothed margin and long pointy tip. Young leaves are white wooly. Flowers have 5 white petals with darker veins. Fruit is round, turning dark brown when ripe with raised pores.
|Scientific Name||Pyrus pyrifolia|
Small to medium-sized tree; upto 12 m tall with a round crown. Flowers are white, with five petals, and borne in clusters during early spring.
|Scientific Name||Quercus floribunda|
Evergreen tree growing up to 20 m tall. Leaves are broad, oval, leathery, with an entire or spiny toothed margin, with 9-12 pairs of veins which are forked at the leaf edge. Male flowers are borne in loose, cat’s tail-like inflorescence, up to 5 cm long. Female flowers are small, reddish, borne at leaf bases. Fruit is an acorn, ovoid, brownish, with a protruding tip.
|Scientific Name||Quercus leucotrichophora|
It is a tree having young shoots tomentose beneath, nerves straight, cuspidate serrate, scales of acorn imbricate. It is found at an altitude of 1200-2400m.
|Scientific Name||Quercus semecarpifolia|
Brown Oak or Kharsu Oak can grow up to 20 m tall, sometimes shrubby. Young parts of the plant are wooly. Leaves are long ovals, leathery, hairless above and rusty wooly on the underside. Male inflorescence is 4-8 cm long, wooly, flowers arranged densely. Female flowers are cup-shaped, velvety. Nut is spherical, dark brown when mature.
|Scientific Name||Rhododendron arboreum|
This small evergreen tree is widely distributed across the Himalayas, and is one of the most famous species of rhododendron.
|Scientific Name||Rhododendron nilagiricum|
Rhododendron arboreum, the tree rhododendron also known as burans or gurans, is an evergreen shrub or small tree with a showy display of bright red flowers.Its name means "tending to be woody or growing in a tree-like form". It has been recorded as reaching heights of up to 20 m. In early- and mid-spring, trusses of 15-20 bell-shaped flowers, 5 cm (2 in) wide and 3-5 cm (1.25 to 2 in) long are produced in red, pink or white. They have black nectar pouches and black spots inside.
|Tamil||மலைப்பூவரசு Malai Poovarasu|
|Scientific Name||Rosa webbiana|
A common shrub rose, 1-2 m high, with straight yellow prickles just below leaves, and seen growing between 1500 to 4000 m asl. Leaflets 5-9, obovate. Flowers solitary, usually pink, with 5 petals and sepals. Fruit red and bottle-shaped.
|Scientific Name||Salix alba|
Medium sized tree, deciduous tree, often with a leaning crown. Bark heavily fissured, especially in older trees. Leaves narrow and covered in silky white hair, more so on the underside. Flowers are borne in early spring on catkins, and are insect-pollinated. Fruits contain minute seeds embedded in down and get dispersed by wind.
|Scientific Name||Santalum album|
Santalum album or Indian sandalwood is a small tropical tree, and is the most commonly known source of sandalwood.The height of the evergreen tree is between 4 and 9 metres. It normally grows in sandy or stony red soils, but a wide range of soil types are inhabited. This habitat has a temperature range from 0 to 38 degree Celsius and annual rainfall between 500 and 3000 mm. S. album can grow up to 30 feet vertically. It should be planted in good sunlight and does not require a lot of water. The tree starts to flower after 7 years. When the tree is still young the flowers are white and with age they turn red or orange. The trunk of the tree starts to develop its fragrance after about 10 years of growth. The tree is parasitic so it gathers nutrients from its surrounding environment.
|Scientific Name||Saraca asoca|
This evergreen tree is rated by some as one of India's most beautiful trees, with the orange-red flowers in bunches among the dense, dark leaves. It is said that Buddha was born under an Ashoka tree, so this tree is sacred to the Buddhists. Hindus also have many sacred associations with this tree.
|Scientific Name||Semecarpus anacardium|
A medium to large sized tree, with a pale brown bark and very large leaves. Flowers are pale yellow and held in terminal panicles. Fruits are green when unripe and become black when ripe and rests on top of a fleshy yellow receptacle.
|Tamil||சேராங்கொட்டைCherankottai ; சேங்கொட்டை Senkottai|
|Scientific Name||Shorea robusta|
This tree is native to the Indian subcontinent.The sal tree is a hardwood timber tree, up to 30-35 m tall. The crown is spreading and spherical. Leaves are 20 cm long, simple, shiny and glabrous, delicate green, broadly oval at the base. Fruits are 1-1.5 cm large and ovoid.Sal seeds have various uses. They may be ground into a flour to make bread.
|Kannada||ashvakarna, asina, asu, bile-bhogimara|
|Tamil||attam, venkungiliyam, kungiliyam|
|Scientific Name||Spathodea campanulata|
Spathodeais commonly known as the African tuliptree is a flowering plant .The tree grows between 7-25 m tall.This tree is planted extensively as an ornamental tree throughout the tropics and is much appreciated for its very showy reddish-orange or crimson (rarely yellow), campanulate flowers.The flower bud is ampule-shaped and contains water. These buds are often used by children who play with its ability to squirt the water. The sap sometimes stains yellow on fingers and clothes. The open flowers are cup-shaped and hold rain and dew, making them attractive to many species of birds.
|Kannada||lujjekaye, neerukayi mara|
|Scientific Name||Sterculia foetida|
Wild Almond Tree is a soft wooded tree that can grow up to 115 feet tall. The origin of the name of the bad-smelling Sterculia genus comes from the Roman god, Sterquilinus, who was the god of fertilizer or manure. The grey bark of the tree is brown-spotted and slightly wavy and also very smooth. Sometimes in the year, the pieces of bark get loosen and also fall.The leaves are placed at the end of branchlets; they have 12.5–23-cm-long petioles; the blades are palmately compound, containing 7-9 leaflets.The flowers are arranged in panicles, 10–15 cm long. The Wild Almond is a tall, straight and noble tree which takes a magnificent look when in the month of March and April; the leafage is at its fullest. Because of an extraordinary height of about 36m, this tree is calculated as one of the giant trees in India.
|Scientific Name||Sterculia urens|
Sterculia urens is a species of plant in the family Malvaceae. It is native to India and has been introduced into Burma.Most of the trees in genus Sterculia have an erect, handsome trunk and the leaf shape and size vary from species to species. The flowers too differ in size, color and smell. From dull khaki green to bright yellow-orange and red-magenta blossoms when in bloom, look like tiny orchids.
|Scientific Name||Syzygium cumini|
The delicious fruits of this tree stain your mouth black. The leaves, bark and seeds are used in traditional medicine; and the wood is used extensively in construction.
|Kannada||Nerle, Jam Nerle|
|Scientific Name||Tabebuia aurea|
It is a popular ornamental tree in subtropical and tropical regions, grown for its spectacular flower display on leafless shoots at the end of the dry season.
|Scientific Name||Tabebuia rosea|
A common exotic avenue tree in Indian cities, it is planted for its lovely rosy blooms during spring. The tree reaches 25-30 m in height. Leaves are palmate, with 5 unequal leaflets. Flowers are rosy, trumpet-shaped, and with a yellow center. Fruits are long and slender capsules that breaks open to release winged seeds.
|Scientific Name||Tabernaemontana crispa|
This is a species very similar looking to the crepe jasmine plant and is endemic to India. Leaves are glossy with prominent venation. Flowers are white and appear in clusters at branch-tips. The flowers are pinwheel-like, but petals are narrower than those of crepe jasmine flower. The plant exudes white sap when injured. Fruits are two-chambered capsules.
|Scientific Name||Tabernaemontana divaricata|
Small tree. The bark is rough and pale bark. Leaves are lens-shaped and shiny. The flowers are white with 5 petals. Fruits, if formed, are in pairs, shaped like a mustache. Unripe fruits are green, turning yellowish on ripening. They dehisce from one slit revealing yellow inside and bright red seeds. Phenology may vary depending on the geographic location of the tree.
|Malayalam||Nandiar vattai നന്ദിയാര്വട്ട|
|Tamil||நந்தியார் வட்டை Nandiar vattai|
|Scientific Name||Tamarindus indica|
This large tree with very small but dense leaves is believed to have come to India from East Africa many centuries ago. Today it is cultivated all over the warm parts of our country and appears like a local Indian tree.
|Scientific Name||Taxus baccata|
Evergreen, dioecious cone-bearing tree. It can grow 30-60 feet (10-20 m) tall. The tree canopy is often pyramid shaped. Bark is brown, thin and scaly. Leaves are flat, appearing to be arranged in 2 ranks, 0.4-1.6 inches long and 2-3 mm broad, dark green in colour. Male cones or pollen cones are globose, 3-6 mm in diameter. Female cones or seed cones are bright red, 8-15 mm in diameter. Seeds are dispersed by birds.
|Scientific Name||Tecomella undulata|
A decidusous tree, Roheda has slender leaves with wavy margins. The flowers are large, trumpet-shaped, yellow, orange or red coloured, and showey. The fruits are long capsules that have winged seeds when ripe.
|Scientific Name||Tectona grandis|
The large tree is world famous for its beautiful, strong, durable wood.
|Scientific Name||Terminalia arjuna|
Terminalia arjuna is a commonly known as arjun tree in English.The arjuna is about 20–25 metres tall; usually has a buttressed trunk, and forms a wide canopy at the crown, from which branches drop downwards. It has oblong, conical leaves which are green on the top and brown below; smooth, grey bark; it has pale yellow flowers which appear between March and June; its glabrous, 2.5 to 5 cm fibrous woody fruit, divided into five wings, appears between September and November.
|Tamil||நீர்மருது Neermaruthu, வெள்ளமருது Vellamaruthu|
|Scientific Name||Terminalia bellirica|
Terminalia bellirica, known as "Bahera" or Beleric or bastard myrobalan, is a large deciduous tree common on plains and lower hills in Southeast Asia, where it is also grown as an avenue tree. The leaves are about 15 cm long and crowded toward the ends of the branches. It is considered a good fodder for cattle.Flowers arise in spikes in leaf axils, 5-15 cm long. Flowers are greenish yellow, 5-6 mm across, stalklesse, upper flowers of the spike are male, lower flowers are bisexual. Stamens are 3-4 mm long. Fruit is obovoid 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter, covered with minute pale pubescence, stone very thick, indistinctly 5 angled
|Kannada||Santi, Thani, Thare|
|Tamil||தானி Thaanii, தான்றி Thaandri|
|Scientific Name||Terminalia catappa|
Terminalia catappa is a large tropical tree in the leadwood tree family, Combretaceae, that grows mainly in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Australia.It is known by the English common names country-almond, Indian-almond, Malabar-almond, sea-almond, tropical-almond and false kamani.The tree grows to 35 m (115 ft) tall, with an upright, symmetrical crown and horizontal branches. Terminalia catappa has corky, light fruit that are dispersed by water. The seed within the fruit is edible when fully ripe, tasting almost like almond. As the tree gets older, its crown becomes more flattened to form a spreading, vase shape. Its branches are distinctively arranged in tiers. The leaves are large, 15–25 cm long and 10–14 cm broad, ovoid, glossy dark green, and leathery. They are dry-season deciduous; before falling, they turn pinkish-reddish or yellow-brown, due to pigments such as violaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin.
|Tamil||நாட்டுவாதாம் Naattu vaadham|
|Scientific Name||Terminalia chebula|
A medium sized tree with a spreading canopy and dark brown, vertically furrowed bark. Leaves are simple, flowers are small and pale yellow, held in terminal spikes. Fruits are are green when unripe and turn red to black when ripe.
|Scientific Name||Terminalia paniculata|
A large deciduous tree from drier parts of peninsular India, the flowering murdah is easily recognisable from its fissured, rough, dark-brown bark, and reddish-brown, dry, winged fruits that are clustered in panicles on branch-ends. The flowers, like many other species of this genus, are small and fragrant, also appearing in panicles on branch-tips.
|Tamil||பிள்ளமருது Pillamarudu, பூமருது Pumarudu|
|Scientific Name||Terminalia tomentosa|
Terminalia elliptica is a species of Terminalia native to southern and southeast Asia in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.t is a tree growing to 30 m tall, with a trunk diameter of 1 m. The fruit is ovoid, 3 cm long, with five wings not extending beyond the fruit apex.The bark is fire-resistant. The wood is coarse, fairly straight grained, dull to somewhat lustrous and without any smell or taste.
|Scientific Name||Thespesia populnea|
Medium sized tree with umbrella-shaped crown. maximum up to 10-12 meters.Flowers are about 8 cm long, bell shaped, singly or in pairs, 5 lemon-yellow, crinkly, overlapping petals with a deep maroon centre, fading to pink.Bark is dark brown, rough and deeply cracked and fissured. Fruits are a singly flattened sphere with a pointy apex, about 4 cm wide; greet at first, turning black.Leaves almost triangular with a broad base, upto 15 cm long.Flowers in the cold season, also throughout the year.Shed many leaves in February in less moist areas although evergreen in most areas.
|Scientific Name||Toona ciliata|
Toona ciliata is a forest tree in the mahogany family which grows throughout southern Asia from Afghanistan to Papua New Guinea and Australia.The species can grow to around 60 m in height and its trunk can reach 3 m in girth.The flowers yield a reddish or yellowish dye, which has been used in tropical Asia to colour silk. The bark may be used for tanning leather, and has been traditionally used to make twine and string bags.
|Tamil||சந்தனவேம்பு Santhana vembu|
|Scientific Name||Trema orientale|
This is a medium sized deciduous tree found distributed across dry and moist forests, and sometimes even in rural and urban areas. It is easily recognizable through its alternately arranges, toothed-margin, hairy leaves. Male and female flowers occur separately in this species and are small, borne on leaf axils in clusters. Fruits are green when unripe and black when ripe
|Malayalam||അമരാത്തി Amaraaththi, ആമത്താളി Aamaththaali|
|Telgu||బొగ్గు చెట్టు Boggu Chettu, చారపప్పుచెట్టు Charapappuchettu|
|Marathi||घोळ Gol, कापशी Kapshi|
|Scientific Name||Trewia nudiflora|
Deciduous dioecious trees to 20 m, bark greyish-brown, smooth; blaze creamy yellow; young parts tomentose. Leaves simple, opposite, decussate; stipules inter petiolar, 2-3 x 1 mm, linear lanceolate; petiole 3-12 cm long.
|Malayalam||Thavalamaram തവള മരം, Kanji കണ്ജി|
|Scientific Name||Vitex negundo|
A large aromatic shrub which has hairy leaves with serrated margins, that are arranged in groups of five (like a peacock's foot). Flowers are small, lilac in colour and are arranged in tall, conical panicles. The fruit is purple-black and fleshy when ripe
|Scientific Name||Wrightia tinctoria|
Medium to small deciduous shrub that sheds leaved during the cold dry season and exudes milky latex when bark or leaf is damaged. Has prominant, fragrant, 5-petalled white flowers with a corona of lacy threads and stamens form a cone. Fruits are twin follicles that split lengthwise to release tufted seeds
|Telgu||ankuduchettu, chitianikudu, kondajemudu|
|Tamil||வெட்பாலை Vaetpaalai ; இரும்பாலை Irumpaalai ; பாலை Paalai|
|Scientific Name||Zanthoxylum rhetsa|
A small, deciduous tree most easily recognizable by the prickly, bumpy appearance of the bark. This tree has large compound leaves with as many as 23 leaflets. Flowers occur in inflorescences usually located at branch tips and are greenish-yellow in colour. Fruits are follicles that are reddish when ripe and rupture to release smooth, black seeds.
|Scientific Name||Ziziphus mauritiana|
Ziziphus mauritiana, also known as Chinese date,ber, Chinee/Chinkee apple, jujube, Indian plum, is a tropical fruit tree species belonging to the family Rhamnaceae.Ziziphus mauritiana is a spiny, evergreen shrub or small tree up to 15 m high, with trunk 40 cm or more in diameter; spreading crown; stipular spines and many drooping branches. The fruit is of variable shape and size. It can be oval, obovate, oblong or round, and can be 2.5-6.25 cm long, depending on the variety. The flesh is white and crisp. When slightly underipe, this fruit is a bit juicy and has a pleasant aroma. The fruit's skin is smooth, glossy, thin but tight.